Symbols of the Virgin Mary
This painting depicts a combination of symbols representing the Virgin Mary: the rose, rosary and rosemary (whose name derives from the Virgin), the thurible and the crown.
THE ROSARY AND THE HOLY SCRIPTURES
from the Rosary Guide for Priests and People by the Very Reverend Father John Procter, S.T.L.
" Thy word is a lamp to my feet, and a light to my path" (Ps. cxviii. 105). In the Devotion of the Rosary the Church holds out this lamp to her children, and, by means of its light, she directs their feet into the ways of God, leading them to His knowledge and His love.
As we shall have to say in a subsequent chapter, the vocal or oral prayers, which simply are essential to the Rosary, are the Pater and the Ave. For in this simple childlike prayer of faith, hope, or love we do not multiply our forms of petition, we do not, "as the heathens do," rely upon our much speaking, "for they think that they are heard for their much speaking" (Matt. vi. 7). Rather like Our Lord Himself, in His prayer in the gardenthe pattern prayer to all time-we repeat the same simple, though pregnant (full of meaning), forms of petition, " saying the same words " (Matt. xxvi. 44). We say the Pater, and this is followed by a decade of Aves; and the Pater and decade of Aves are repeated as we think of each of the fifteen mysteries of faith. Pater and Ave are both, needless to say, scriptural prayers. The Pater is more than a scriptural, it is a Divine prayer, consecrated by the lips of Jesus Christ. His disciples said to Him : " Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples." And He said to them : " When you pray say, ' Father, hallowed be Thy name,' &c." (Luke xi. 2). The Ave again, if not a Divine, is a Heaveninspired prayer, a salutation at once and a message to Mary from on high. " And the angel being come in, said to her: ' Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women '" (Matt. i. 28).
, a few days later, took up the same refrain, adding to it earth's expression of loyal praise to the Divine One who was to be born of Mary : " Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the Fruit of thy womb" (Ibid. 42). Elizabeth
As we have already said, the subjects of the mysteries which form the mental prayer of the rosary are (if we except the last two) all scriptural. We shall see this more clearly from the subjoined list of texts, showing from Holy Writ the types and figures, or forecasts, and then the realities of the mysteries, or sacred events, upon which the mind has to dwell during the recitation of the prescribed prayers of the Rosary.
THE FIVE JOYFUL MYSTERIES
1. The Annunciation
Forecast." The Lord Himself shall give you a sign: Behold a Virgin shall conceive and bear a son and His name shall be called Emanuel" (Isa. vii.14).
Fulfilment." Now in the sixth month, the Angel Gabriel was sent from God into a city of
, called Galilee , to a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David: and the virgin's name was Mary. And the angel being come in, said unto her: ' Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women.' Who having heard, was troubled at his saying, and thought within herself what manner of salutation this should be. And the angel said to her : ' Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found grace with God, behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of David His father; and He shall reign in the house of Jacob for ever, and of His kingdom there shall be no end.' Nazareth
" And Mary said to the angel : ' How shall this be done, because I know not man ?' And the angel answering said to her: ' The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee, and therefore, also, the Holy which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.' And Mary said : ' Behold the handmaid of the Lord, be it done to me according to thy word.' And the angel departed from her" (S. Luke i. 26-35, 38)
2. The Visitation
Type." And he (David) feared God at that time, saying : ' How can I bring in the Ark of God to me ?' And therefore he brought it not home to himself, that is into the city of
, but carried it aside into the house of Obededom the Gethite. And the Ark of God remained in the house of Obededom three months: and the Lord blessed his house and all that he had" (1 Par. xiii. 12-14). David
Fulfilment." Now the angel said to Mary: 'Behold thy cousin Elizabeth, she also hath conceived a son in her old age; and this is the sixth month with her that is called barren, because no word shall be impossible with God.'
''And Mary rising up in those days, went into the hill country with haste into the city of
. And she entered into the house of Zachary, and saluted Juda . And it came to pass, that when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the infant leaped in her womb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost; and she cried out with a loud voice, and said, ' Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb; and whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? For behold as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy. And blessed art thou that hast believed, because those things shall be accomplished that were spoken to thee by the Lord.' Elizabeth
" And Mary said : ' My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour, because He hath regarded the humility of His handmaid ; for behold from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. Because He that is mighty hath done great things to me; and holy is His name, and His mercy is from generation unto generations, to them that fear Him. He hath showed might in His arm ; He hath scattered the proud in the conceit of their heart. He hath put down the mighty from their seat, and hath exalted the humble. He hath filled the hungry with good things, and the rich He hath sent empty away. He hath received
His servant, being mindful of His mercy. As He spoke to our fathers, to Abraham and to his seed for ever.' And Mary abode with her about three months : and she returned to her own house " (S. Luke i. 36, 37, 39-56) Israel
Forecast." For A Child is Born To us; and a Son given to us; and the government is upon His shoulder; and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, God the Mighty, the Father of the World to come, the Prince of Peace " (Isa. ix. 6).
Fulfilment."And it came to pass that in those days there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that the whole world should be enrolled. This enrolling was first made by Cyrinus, the governor of
. And all went to be enrolled, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee out of the city of Syria mto Judea, to the city of Nazareth , which is called David , because he was of the house and family of David, to be enrolled with Mary, his espoused wife, who was with child. Bethlehem
"And it came to pass that when they were there, her days were accomplished that she should be delivered. And she brought forth her first-born son, and wrapped Him up in swaddling clothes, and laid Him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.
"And there were in the same country shepherds watching and keeping their night-watches over their flock. And behold an angel of the Lord stood by them ; and the brightness of God shone round them ; and they feared with a great fear. And the angel said to them : ' Fear not, for behold I bring you good tidings of great joy, that shall be to all the people : for this day is born to you a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord, in the city of
. And this shall be a sign unto you : you shall find the infant wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger.' And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly army, praising God, and saying : ' Glory to God in the highest: and on earth peace to men of good will.' David
" And it came to pass, after the angels departed from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another : ' Let us go over to Bethlehem, and let us see this word that is come to pass, which the Lord hath showed to us.' And they came with haste; and they found Mary and Joseph, and the infant lying in the manger. And seeing, they understood of the word that had been spoken to them concerning this child. And all that heard wondered; and at those things that were told them by the shepherds. But Mary kept all these words, pondering them in her heart. And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them " (S. Luke ii. 1-20).
Type."And (Anna) brought him (Samuel) to the house of the Lord in Silo. Now the child was yet very young, and they immolated a calf, and offered the child to Heli. And Anna said : ' I beseech thee, my Lord, as thy soul liveth, I am that woman who stood before thee praying to the Lord. For this child did I pray ; and the Lord hath granted me my petition which I asked of Him. Therefore I also have lent him to the Lord ; all the days of his life he shall be lent to the Lord.' And they adored the Lord there. And Anna prayed and said : ' My heart hath exulted in the Lord, and my horn is exalted in my God. My mouth is enlarged above my enemies, for I have rejoiced in Thy salvation. There is none holy like unto the Lord, for there is none other beside Thee, and there is none mighty like unto our God . . . The Lord maketh poor and maketh rich. He bringeth down and lifteth up ... He shall give Dominion unto His King, and shall exalt the horn of His Christ" (1 Kings ii. 1-1o).
Fulfilment." And after the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they carried Him to Jerusalem to present Him to the Lord, as it is written in the law of the Lord, every male opening the womb shall be called holy to the Lord, and to offer a sacrifice according as it is written in the law of the Lord, a pair of turtle-doves, or two young pigeons.
" And behold there was a man in Jerusalem named Simeon, and this man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Ghost was in him. And he had received an answer from the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death before he had seen the Christ of the Lord. And he came by the Spirit into the
. And when His parents brought in the child Jesus to do for Him according to the custom of the law, he also took Him into his arms, and blessed God, and said: ' Now Thou dost dismiss Thy servant, O Lord, according to Thy word in peace, because my eyes have seen Thy salvation, which Thou hast prepared before the face of all peoples: a light to the revelation of the gentiles, and the glory of Thy people Israel.' Temple
" And His father and mother were wondering at those things, which were spoken concerning Him. And Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary His Mother: ' Behold this child is set for the fall, and for the resurrection of many in Israel, and for a sign which shall be contradicted, and thy own soul a sword shall pierce, that out of many hearts thoughts may be revealed'" (S. Luke ii. 22-35).
5. The Finding Of Our Lord In The
Type." ' Why, thinkest thou, does my son tarry, or why is he detained there ?' . . . But his mother wept, and was quite disconsolate, and said : ' Wo, wo, is me, my son ; why did we send thee to go to a strange country, the light of our eyes, the staff of our old age, the comfort of our life, the hope of our posterity ? We having all things together in thee alone, ought not to have let thee go from us.' And Tobias said to her: ' Hold thy peace, and be not troubled, our son is safe.' . . . But she could not be comforted, but daily running out, looked round about, and went into all the ways by which there seemed any hope that he might return. . . . And while she watched him coming from that place, she saw him from afar off and presently perceived it was her son coming " (Tobias ix. and x.)
Fulfilment."And the child grew, and waxed strong, full of wisdom; and the grace of God was in Him. And His parents went every year to
at the solemn day of the pasch. And when He was twelve years old, they going up to Jerusalem according to the custom of the feast, and having fulfilled the days, when they returned, the child Jesus remained in Jerusalem, and His parents knew it not. And thinking that He was in the company, they came a day's journey, and sought Him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance. And not finding Him, they returned into Jerusalem , seeking Him. Jerusalem
" And it came to pass, that after three days they found Him in the
sitting in the midst of the doctors, hearing them and asking them questions. And all that heard Him were astonished at His wisdom and His answers. And seeing Him they wondered. And His mother said to Him: 'Son, why hast Thou done so to us? behold Thy father and I have sought Thee sorrowing.' And He said to them: 'How is it that you sought Me? did you not know that I must be about My Father's business ?' And they understood not the word that He spoke to them. Temple
"And He went down with them, and came to
, and was subject to them. And His mother kept all these words in her heart. And Jesus advanced in wisdom and age, and grace with God and men" (S. Luke ii. 40-52). Nazareth
THE FIVE SORROWFUL MYSTERIES
I. THE PRAYER AND AGONY IN THE GARDEN
Type."And he (Elias) went forward one day's journey in the wilderness, and sat down under a juniper tree, and requested for his soul that he might die, and said: ' It is enough for me, O Lord; take away my soul, for I am no better than my fathers.' And he cast himself down, and slept in the shadow of the juniper tree. And behold an Angel of the Lord touched him and said to him : ' Arise and eat!' . . . And the Angel of the Lord came again a second time and touched him, and said to him, " Arise, eat; for thou hast yet a great way to go.' And he arose and ate and drank, and walked in the strength of that food forty days and forty nights, unto the
, Horeb " (3 Kings xix.) of mountain God
Fulfilment."And Jesus came with them into a country place which is called Gethsemani; and He said to His disciples : ' Sit you here till I go yonder and pray.' And taking with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, He began to grow sorrowful and to be sad. Then He saith to them, ' My soul is sorrowful even unto death : stay you here, and watch with Me.' And going a little further, He fell upon His face, praying, and saying, ' My Father, if it be possible, let this chalice pass from Me, nevertheless not as I will, but as Thou wilt.'
" And He cometh to His disciples, and findeth them asleep, and He saith to Peter, ' What, could you not watch one hour with Me ? Watch ye, and pray that ye enter not into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.' Again the second time, He went and prayed saying: ' My Father, if this chalice may not pass away, but I must drink it, Thy will be done.' And there appeared to Him an angel from heaven, strengthening Him. And being in an agony, He prayed the longer. And His sweat became as drops of blood trickling down upon the ground. And He cometh again, and findeth them sleeping, for their eyes were heavy.
" And leaving them, He went again; and He prayed the third time, saying the self-same words. Then He cometh to His disciples, and saith to them: ' Sleep ye now, and take your rest, behold the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man shall be betrayed into the hands of sinners. Rise, let us go; behold, he is at hand that will betray me.'
" As He yet spoke, behold Judas, one of the twelve,
2. The Scourging At The Pillar
Type." And the Lord said to Satan : ' Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a man simple and upright; and fearing God and avoiding evil, and still keeping his innocence ? But thou hast moved me against him, that I should afflict him without cause.' And Satan answered: ' Skin for skin, and all that a man hath he will give for his life; but put forth Thy hand and touch his bone and his flesh, and Thou shalt see that he will bless Thee to Thy face.' And the Lord said to Satan: ' Behold he is in thy hand, but yet save his life " (Job ii. 1-7).
Fulfilment."But the chief priests and ancients persuaded the people, that they should ask Barabbas, and make Jesus away. And the governor answering, said to them : ' Whether will you of the two to be released unto you?' But they said, 'Barabbas.' Pilate saith to them : ' What shall I do then with Jesus that is called Christ ?' They say all: ' Let Him be crucified.' The governor said to them : ' Why what evil hath He done ? ' But they cried out the more, saying: 'Let Him be crucified.' And Pilate seeing that he prevailed nothing, but that rather a tumult was made; taking water washed his hands before the people, saying: ' I am innocent of the blood of this just man, look you to it.' And the whole people answering, said : ' His blood be upon us, and upon our children.' And so Pilate, being willing to satisfy the people, released to them Barabbas, and delivered up Jesus, when he had scourged Him" (S. Matt, xxvii. 20-25 > S. Mark xv. 15).
Type."And Abraham saw behind his back a ram amongst the thorns, sticking fast by the horns, which he took and offered for an holocaust" (Gen. xxii. 13).
Fulfilment."Then the soldiers of the governor, taking Jesus into the hall, gathered together unto Him the whole band. And stripping Him, they put a scarlet cloak about Him. And platting a crown of thorns, they put it upon His head, and a reed in His right hand. And bowing the knee before Him, they mocked Him, saying, ' Hail, King of the Jews.' And spitting upon Him, they took the reed and struck His head. And after they had mocked Him, they took off the cloak from Him, and put on Him His own garments, and led Him away to crucify Him " (S. Matt, xxvii. 27-31).
4. OUR LORD CARRYING HIS CROSS
Type." God said to Abraham : ' Take thine only begotten son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and go into the
; and there thou shalt offer him for an holocaust upon one of the mountains which I will show thee. So Abraham, rising up in the night, saddled his ass ; and took with him two young men, and Isaac his son; and when he had cut the wood for the holocaust, he went his way to the place which God had commanded him. And on the third day he saw the place afar off. And he said to the young men: ' Stay you here with the ass; I and the boy will go with speed as far as yonder, and after we have worshipped we will return to you.' And he took the wood and laid it upon Isaac his son, and he himself carried in his hands fire and a sword. And as they two went on together Isaac said to his father: ' My father. . . . Where is the victim for the holocaust ?' And Abraham said: ' God will provide himself a victim for an holocaust, my son ' " (Gen. xxii. 1-8). of land Vision
Fulfilment." Now when Pilate had heard these words, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat, in the place that is called Lithostrotos, and in Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the parasceve of the pasch, about the sixth hour, and he saith to the Jews : ' Behold your king.' But they cried out, 'Away with Him, away with Him, crucify Him.' Pilate saith to them, ' Shall I crucify your king ? ' The chief priests answered, ' We have no king but Caesar.' Then therefore he delivered Him to them to be crucified.
" And they took Jesus, and led Him forth. And bearing His own cross, He went forth to that place which is called Calvary, but in Hebrew,
. And as they led Him away, they laid hold of one Simon Cyrene, coming from the country ; and they laid the cross on him to carry after Jesus. Golgotha
"And there followed Him a great multitude of people, and of women who bewailed and lamented Him. But Jesus turning to them said : ' Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not over Me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children; for behold the days shall come, wherein they shall say : " Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that have not borne, and the paps that have not given suck." Then shall they begin to say to the mountains " Fall upon us," and to the hills "Cover us." For if in the green wood they do these things, what shall be done in the dry ?'" (S. John xix. 13-17; S. Luke xxiii. 26-31).
5. The Crucifixion And Death Of Our Lord
Type." And it shall be a lamb without blemish. . . And the whole multitude of the children of
shall sacrifice it in the evening" (Exod. xii. 5, 6). Israel
Fulfilment."And they came to the place that is called Golgotha, which is the place of
. And they gave Him wine to drink, mingled with gall. And when He had tasted He would not drink. And after they had crucified Him, they divided His garments, casting lots; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet saying, ' They divided my garments among them, and upon my vesture they cast lots.' And they sat and watched Him, and they put over His head His cause written, ' This is Jesus the King of the Jews.' " Then were crucified with Him two thieves, one on the right hand, and one on the left. And they that passed by, blasphemed Him, wagging their heads, and saying, ' Vah, Thou that destroyest the Temple of God, and in three days dost rebuild it; save Thy own self; if Thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross.' In like manner also the chief priests with the scribes and ancients mocking said, ' He saved others, Himself He cannot save; if He be the king of Israel, let Him now come down from the cross, and we will believe Him; He trusted in God, let Him now deliver Him if He will have Him ; for He said, " I am the Son of God." ' And the self same thing the thieves also that were crucified with Him, reproached Him with. Calvary
" Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over the whole earth, until the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, ' Eli, Eli, lamma sabacthani ?' that is, ' My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?' And some that stood there and heard, said, 'This Man calleth Elias.' And immediately one of them running, took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave Him to drink; and the others said: ' Let be, let us see whether Elias will come to deliver Him.'
" And Jesus again crying with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. And behold the veil of the temple was rent in two, from the top even to the bottom, and the earth quaked, and the rocks were rent, and the graves were opened, and many bodies of the saints that had slept arose, and coming out of the tombs after His resurrection, came into the holy city, and appeared to many. Now the centurion and they that were with him watching Jesus, having seen the earthquake and the things that were done, were sore afraid, saying, ' Indeed this was the Son of God'" (S. Matt, xxvii. 33-54).
Type and Forecast." ' Rabbi, we would see a sign from Thee.' To whom He replied, 'An evil and adulterous generation seeketh a sign, and no sign shall be given to it except the sign of Jonas the prophet. For as Jonas was in the belly of the whale three days and three nights, so the Son of Man shall be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth' (Matt. xii. 39).
"' Destroy this temple, and in three days I will rebuild it.' . . But He spoke of the
" (John ii. 19-21). of temple His Body
Fulfilment. "In the end of the Sabbath, when it began to dawn towards the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalen and the other Mary to see the sepulchre. And behold there was a great earthquake, for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and coming rolled back the stone, and sat upon it. And his countenance was as lightning and his raiment as snow. And for fear of him, the guards were struck with terror, and became as dead men. And the angel answering, said to the women : ' Fear not, you: for I know that you seek Jesus who was crucified. He is not here, for He is risen, as He said. Come, and see the place where the Lord was laid. And going quickly tell ye His disciples that He is risen; and behold He will go before you into
; there you shall see Him. Lo, I have foretold it to you.' And they went out quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy, running to tell His disciples" (S. Matt, xxviii. 1-8). Galilee
Type." And as they went on walking and talking together, behold, a fiery chariot and fiery horses parted them both asunder; and Elias went up by a whirlwind into heaven" (4 Kings ii. It).
Fulfilment. " And He led them out as far as Bethania, and lifting up His hands He blessed them. And it came to pass, whilst He blessed them, He departed from them and was carried up to heaven. And while they were beholding Him going up to heaven, behold two men stood by them in white garments; who also said, ' Ye men of
, why stand you looking up to heaven ? This Jesus who is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come as you have seen Him going into heaven.' Then they returned to Galilee , from the mount that is called Olivet, which is nigh Jerusalem , within a sabbath day's journey" (S. Luke xxiv. 50-51 ; Acts 1. 10-12). Jerusalem
Type."For all the people saw the lightnings, and the mountain covered with smoke, and heard the words and the sound of the trumpet; and terrorstricken and overcome with fear, they stood at a distance, saying to Moses : ' Speak thou to us and we will hear, and let not the Lord speak to us, lest perhaps we die.' And Moses said to the people : 'Fear not, for God is come to prove you, that His fear might be in you, and that you should not sin'" (Exod. xx. 18).
Fulfilment." And when they were come in they went up into an upper room, where abode Peter and John, James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James of Alpheus and Simon Zelotes, and Jude the brother of James. All these were persevering with one mind in prayer with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His brethren.
" And when the days of the Pentecost were accomplished, they were all together in one place. And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a mighty wind coming, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting; and there appeared to them parted tongues as it were of fire, and it sat upon every one of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and they began to speak with divers tongues, according as the Holy Ghost gave them to speak.
" Now there were dwelling at
, Jews, devout men out of every nation under the heaven. And when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded in mind, because that every man heard them speak in his own tongue. And they were all amazed, and wondered, saying, ' Behold are not all these that speak Galileans? And how have we heard, every man, our own tongue wherein we were born ?'" (Acts i. 13-14, ii. 1-8). Jerusalem
4. The Assumption
Figure." I am the flower of the field, and the lily of the valleys. As the lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters. As the apple tree among the trees of the woods, so is my beloved among the sons. I sat down under his shadow whom I desired; and his fruit was sweet to my palate. He brought me into the cellar of wine, he set in order charity in me. Stay me up with flowers, compass me about with apples, because I languish with love. His left hand is under my head, and his right hand shall embrace me. Behold my beloved speaketh to me: ' Arise, make haste my love, my dove, my beautiful one, and come. For winter is now past, the rain is over and gone. The flowers have appeared in our land, the time of pruning is come, the voice of the turtle is heard in our land. The fig-tree hath put forth her green figs; the vines in flower yield their sweet smell. Arise my love, my beautiful one, and come'" (Canticle of Canticles ii. 1-6, 10-13).
Fulfilment." To-day the sacred and living
of the God of life which conceived the Creator of all in the womb, rests on the temple of the Lord which is not built with hands. David, her father, rejoices, and with him the Angels sing in choirs, the Archangels praise her, the hosts of heaven glorify her, the principalities exult, the powers rejoice, the dominions wish her joy, the thrones keep high festival, the cherubim extol her, the seraphim proclaim her glory. To-day Eden receives the living Paradise of the New Adam, in whom condemnation ends, in whom the tree of life hath been planted, and in whom our nakedness is covered" (Sermon of S. John Damascene on the Death of Mary. Quoted in the Roman Breviary of the Feast of the Assumption). Ark
5. Coronation Of Our Lady In Heaven
Type."And the king loved her (Esther) more than all the women; and she had favour and kindness before him above all the women ; and he set the royal crown upon her head, and made her queen" (Esther ii. 17).
Fulfilment." And the seventh angel sounded the trumpet; and there were great voices in heaven, saying: ' The kingdom of this world is become our Lord's and His Christ's, and He shall reign for ever and ever. Amen.' And the four and twenty ancients, who sit on their seats in the sight of God, fell on their faces and adored God, saying : ' We give Thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, who art, and who wast, and who art to come; because Thou hast taken to Thee great power, and Thou hast reigned. And the nations were angry, and Thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that Thou shouldst render reward to Thy servants the prophets, and the saints, and to them that fear Thy name, little and great, and shouldst destroy them who have corrupted the earth.' And the
was opened in heaven ; and the ark of His testament was seen in His temple, and there were lightnings, and voices, and an earthquake, and great hail. And a great sign appeared in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars." (Apocalypse xi. 15-19, xii. 1). of temple God
We may close this chapter with the words with which it opened. When, in the spirit of faith, I take my bead-string into my hands, and forgetting for the nonce (present) that the world has grown old by well-nigh two thousand years, and that some thousands of miles lie between me and the Eastern lands sanctified by the visible presence of the Incarnate Word, I travel on the wings of thought and love to the days when He " walked this earth " and to the places in which " He was seen by men,"truly O Lord, " Thy word is a lamp to my feet, and a light to my path" (Ps. cxviii. 105).